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1. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI

He is a political man, historian and writer (1469-1527). His family was a middle class family who raised many bureaucrats to serve for Florence. He has done his education at home under control of a private tutor named Matteo and learned Latin pretty well. On March 1498 he entered to diplomatic work field; he was promoted as the second secretary of the Florence city state. After a year at this job, his first political work was published : Discorto Fatto al Magistrato dei dieciSopra le Cose di Pisa (The talks done by the officials of ten small states, about the problems at Pisa) . We meet the characteristics of his works done while he is mature (strong logic, realism and biting style) on this book. He was sent next to the governor of Piombino, Pacopo IV Apiani and Catarina Sforza Riario. This is because of the Pisa war. There created absolute necessities and he had to function as an ambassador with unimportant assignments. On May 1500, with a more important assignment he was sent to the king of France and lived away from Italy for six months. After he returned to his country he was assigned to many important political jobs in Toscana. One of the most important of these jobs was the one he got on 1502, June and November, when Valantino tried to separate the unity of Florence with the help of the rebellions by Arezzo and Valdi. Machiavelli examined the policy by Caesar Borgia closely and carefully : Vitellozzo Vitelli, Oliverotto da Fermo, Signore Pagolo and Duke Gravinas killing which is bound with Duke Valentinos behavior (1503). This writing was so important in Machiavellis history of political thought as well as the two other works of him written in the same year : the first work he harshly criticizes the hesitant character of the politics in Florence, in his second work he criticizes the powerless sides of the seniors and he supports the example of the ended Rome Empire. When Julius II. covered the old Popes place (Alexander VI) as a new Pope, Machiavelli was sent to Rome. While in Rome he watched Valentinos faith closely, found an opportunity to figure out the new Popes nature. After the defeat of French at Garigliano he was again sent to France and stayed there till March 1504. It is thought that his work Decenale Primo (first ten years) which was printed in 1506 was finished in those years in France. In 1506 he tried to reform the Florence militia department. After this, he defended that instead of the army strengthened while in war, there has to be city armies. He worked on the technical sides rather than the relation between politics and the military. In his mature times works he, especially on his work named The Art of War, brought out theories on conscription. In 1507 he went by the Emperor Maximilian; especially stayed Switzerland and Tirol. He worked on the clothing of German people; he later on rewrote this work of his in 1512. He stayed by the emperor till 1509 and at the same year he stayed ready for the surrender of Pisa. He was one of the people who signed the treaty. He returned to Florence in 1510. It is thought that in these times he wrote his work Decennale Secondo (Second Ten Years) which gives information about the Venice wars. Machiavelli went to France two times (1510-1511) for political purpose. He told about the French style clothing and politics in the letters he sent to Florence and his work Scenes from France. By these times Florence was in trouble after the war of Rovenna. Spanish were walking towards Florence and just before the militia forces who were organized by were defeated. On the day of 16 September 1513 the Medici supporters conquered the government building and the republic ended.

When Machiavelli opposed this he was taken away from his position. He was accused of joining the rebellion led by Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the new government and sentenced to serve a short period of jail time. Later it is decided that he is going to be kept under surveillance and at his home. But

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